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PROBUS 281 AD Authentic Rare Ancient Roman Coin Salus Health Cult

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PROBUS 281 AD Authentic Rare Ancient Roman Coin Salus Health Cult i54323.

Probus - Roman Emperor: 276-282 A.D. -

Bronze Antoninianus 23mm (3.72 grams) Ticinum mint 281 A.D.

Reference: RIC 498h, C 579

IMPCPROBVSPFAVG - Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter with eagle atop.

SALVSAVG Exe: V/TXXI - Salus standing right, holding and feeding snake.


You are buying the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity.


In Greek and Roman mythology, Hygieia (also Hygiea or Hygeia, Greek Ὑγιεία or Ὑγεία, Latin Hygēa or Hygīa), was the daughter of the god of medicine, Asclepius, and Epione. She was the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness and sanitation.


Hygieia and her five sisters each performed a facet of Apollo's art: Hygieia ("Hygiene" the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation), Panacea (the goddess of Universal remedy), Iaso (the goddess of recuperation from illness), Aceso (the goddess of the healing process).


Hygieia also played an important part in her father's cult. While her father was more directly associated with healing, she was associated with the prevention of sickness and the continuation of good health. Her name is the source of the word "hygiene". She was imported by the Romans as the Goddess Valetudo, the goddess of personal health, but in time she started to be increasingly identified with the ancient Italian goddess of social welfare, Salus.



At Athens, Hygieia was the subject of a local cult since at least the 7th century BC. "Athena Hygieia" was one of the cult titles given to Athena, as Plutarch recounts of the building of theParthenon (447-432 BC):


A strange accident happened in the course of building, which showed that the goddess was not averse to the work, but was aiding and co-operating to bring it to perfection. One of the artificers, the quickest and the handiest workman among them all, with a slip of his foot fell down from a great height, and lay in a miserable condition, the physicians having no hope of his recovery. When Pericles was in distress about this, the goddess [Athena] appeared to him at night in a dream, and ordered a course of treatment, which he applied, and in a short time and with great ease cured the man. And upon this occasion it was that he set up a brass statue of Athena Hygieia, in the citadel near the altar, which they say was there before. But it wasPhidias who wrought the goddess's image in gold, and he has his name inscribed on the pedestal as the workman of it.

However, the cult of Hygieia as an independent goddess did not begin to spread out until the Delphic oracle recognized her, and after the devastating Plague of Athens (430-427 BC) and in Rome in 293 BC.


In the 2nd century AD, Pausanias noted the statues both of Hygieia and of Athena Hygieia near the entrance to theAcropolis of Athens.




Hygieia's primary temples were in Epidaurus, Corinth, Cos andPergamon. Pausanias remarked that, at the Asclepieion of Titanein Sicyon (founded by Alexanor, Asclepius' grandson), statues of Hygieia were covered by women's hair and pieces of Babylonianclothes. According to inscriptions, the same sacrifices were offered at Paros.


Ariphron, a Sicyonian artist from the 4th century BC wrote a well-known hymn celebrating her. Statues of Hygieia were created by Scopas, Bryaxis and Timotheus, among others, but there is no clear description of what they looked like. She was often depicted as a young woman feeding a large snake that was wrapped around her body or drinking from a jar that she carried. These attributes were later adopted by the Gallo-Roman healing goddess, Sirona. Hygieia was accompanied by her brother,Telesphorus.


The Pythagoreans called the pentagram ὑγιεία Hugieia("health"); also the Greek goddess of health, Hygieia and saw in the pentagram a mathematical perfection.


Marcus Aurelius Probus (c. August 19, 232–September/October, 282) was a Roman Emperor (276–282).


A native of Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia), in Pannonia, at an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the EmperorsValerian, Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by Tacitus, at whose death he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers (276).


Florianus, who had claimed to succeed his half-brother Tacitus, was put to death by his own troops after an indecisive campaign. Probus moved to the West, defeated the Goths acquiring the title of Gothicus(280), and saw his position ratified by the Senate.


The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers. The most important of these operations were directed to clearing Gaul of German invaders (Franks, Longiones, Alamanni andBurgundians), allowing Probus to adopt the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts, in order to restart the economy in these devastated lands.


In 279–280, Probus was, according to Zosimus, in Raetia,Illyricum and Lycia, where he fought the Vandals. In the same years, Probus' generals defeated the Blemmyes in Egypt; Probus ordered the reconstruction of bridges and canals along the Nile, where the production of grain for the Empire was centered.


In 280–281, Probus had also put down three usurpers, Julius Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. The extent of these revolts is not clear, but there are clues that they were not just local problems. In 281, the emperor was in Rome, where he celebrated his triumph.


Probus was eager to start his eastern campaign, delayed by the revolts in the west. He left Rome in 282, moving first towards Sirmium, his birth city, when the news that Marcus Aurelius Carus, commander of the Praetorian Guard, had been proclaimed emperor reached him. Probus sent some troops against the new usurper, but when those troops changed sides and supported Carus, Probus's soldiers then assassinated him (September/October 282).


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