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Septimius Severus - Roman Emperor: 193-211 A.D. - Silver Denarius 17mm (3.50 grams) Emesa mint: 194-195 A.D.

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Item: i54264

  Authentic Ancient Coin of:

Septimius Severus - Roman Emperor: 193-211 A.D. -

Silver Denarius 17mm (3.50 grams) Emesa mint: 194-195 A.D.

Reference: RIC 383b(var.)

IMPCAELSEPSEVPERTAVGCOSII - Laureate head right.

FORTVNREDVC - Fortuna standing left, holding palm and cornucopia. [RIC unlisted reverse legend].

 

You are buying the exact item pictured, provided with a Certificate of Authenticity and Lifetime Guarantee of Authenticity.

 

Fortuna (Latin: Fortūna, equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) was the goddess of fortune and personification of luck in Roman religion. She might bring good luck or bad: she could be represented as veiled and blind, as in modern depictions of Justice, and came to represent life's capriciousness. She was also a goddess of fate: as Atrox Fortuna, she claimed the young lives of the princeps Augustus' grandsons Gaius and Lucius, prospective heirs to the Empire.

 

Her father was said to be Jupiter and like him, she could also be bountiful . As Annonaria she protected grain supplies. June 11 was sacred to her: on June 24 she was given cult at the festival of Fors Fortuna.

 

Cult

 

 

Fortuna and Pontos

Fortuna's Roman cult was variously attributed to Servius Tullius – whose exceptional good fortune suggested their sexual intimacy – and to Ancus Marcius. The two earliest temples mentioned in Roman Calendars were outside the city, on the right bank of the Tiber (in Italian Trastevere). The first temple dedicated to Fors was attributed to the Etruscan Servius Tullius, while the second is known to have been built in 293 BC as the fulfilment of a Roman promise made during later Etruscan wars The date of dedication of her temples was 24 June, or Midsummer’s Day, when celebrants from Rome annually floated to the temples downstream from the city. After undisclosed rituals they then rowed back, garlanded and inebriated. Also Fortuna had a temple at the Forum Boarium. Here Fortuna was twinned with the cult of Mater Matuta (the goddesses shared a festival on 11 June), and the paired temples have been revealed in the excavation beside the church of Sant'Omobono: the cults are indeed archaic in date. Fortuna Primigenia of Praeneste was adopted by Romans at the end of 3rd BC in an important cult of Fortuna Publica Populi Romani (the Official Good Luck of the Roman People) on the Quirinalis outside the Porta Collina. No temple at Rome, however, rivalled the magnificence of the Praenestine sanctuary.

 

File:Allegory of Fortune mg 0010.jpg

Fortuna lightly balances the orb of sovereignty between thumb and finger in a Dutch painting of ca 1530

(Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg)

Fortuna's identity as personification of chance events was closely tied to virtus (strength of character). Public officials who lacked virtues invited ill-fortune on themselves and Rome: Sallust uses the infamous Catiline as illustration – "Truly, when in the place of work, idleness, in place of the spirit of measure and equity, caprice and pride invade, fortune is changed just as with morality".

 

An oracle at the Temple of Fortuna Primigena in Praeneste used a form of divination in which a small boy picked out one of various futures that were written on oak rods. Cults to Fortuna in her many forms are attested throughout the Roman world. Dedications have been found to Fortuna Dubia (doubtful fortune), Fortuna Brevis (fickle or wayward fortune) and Fortuna Mala (bad fortune).

 

She is found in a variety of domestic and personal contexts. During the early Empire, an amulet from the House of Menander in Pompeii links her to the Egyptian goddess Isis, as Isis-Fortuna.[11] She is functionally related to the God Bonus Eventus, who is often represented as her counterpart: both appear on amulets and intaglio engraved gems across the Roman world.

 

Her name seems to derive from Vortumna

 

 

 

The cornucopia (from Latin cornu copiae) or horn of plenty is a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers, nuts, other edibles, or wealth in some form. Originating in classical antiquity, it has continued as a symbol in Western art, and it is particularly associated with the Thanksgiving holiday in North America.

 

 

Allegorical depiction of the Roman goddess Abundantia with a cornucopia, by Rubens (ca. 1630)

In Mythology

 

Mythology offers multiple explanations of the origin of the cornucopia. One of the best-known involves the birth and nurturance of the infant Zeus, who had to be hidden from his devouring father Cronus. In a cave on Mount Ida on the island of Crete, baby Zeus was cared for and protected by a number of divine attendants, including the goat Amalthea ("Nourishing Goddess"), who fed him with her milk. The suckling future king of the gods had unusual abilities and strength, and in playing with his nursemaid accidentally broke off one of her horns, which then had the divine power to provide unending nourishment, as the foster mother had to the god.

 

In another myth, the cornucopia was created when Heracles (Roman Hercules) wrestled with the river god Achelous and wrenched off one of his horns; river gods were sometimes depicted as horned. This version is represented in the Achelous and Hercules mural painting by the American Regionalist artist Thomas Hart Benton.

 

The cornucopia became the attribute of several Greek and Roman deities, particularly those associated with the harvest, prosperity, or spiritual abundance, such as personifications of Earth (Gaia or Terra); the child Plutus, god of riches and son of the grain goddess Demeter; the nymph Maia; and Fortuna, the goddess of luck, who had the power to grant prosperity. In Roman Imperial cult, abstract Roman deities who fostered peace (pax Romana) and prosperity were also depicted with a cornucopia, including Abundantia, "Abundance" personified, and Annona, goddess of the grain supply to the city of Rome. Pluto, the classical ruler of the underworld in the mystery religions, was a giver of agricultural, mineral and spiritual wealth, and in art often holds a cornucopia to distinguish him from the gloomier Hades, who holds a drinking horn instead.

 

Modern depictions

 

In modern depictions, the cornucopia is typically a hollow, horn-shaped wicker basket filled with various kinds of festive fruit and vegetables. In North America, the cornucopia has come to be associated with Thanksgiving and the harvest. Cornucopia is also the name of the annual November Wine and Food celebration in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. Two cornucopias are seen in the flag and state seal of Idaho. The Great Seal of North Carolina depicts Liberty standing and Plenty holding a cornucopia. The coat of arms of Colombia, Panama, Peru and Venezuela, and the Coat of Arms of the State of Victoria, Australia, also feature the cornucopia, symbolising prosperity.

 

The horn of plenty is used on body art and at Halloween, as it is a symbol of fertility, fortune and abundance.

 

 

Base of a statue of

Louis XV of France

 

 

 

Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (April 11, 145/146-February 4, 211) was a Roman general, and Roman Emperor from April 14, 193 to 211. He was born in what is now the Berber part of Rome's historic Africa Province.

 

Septimius Severus was born and raised at Leptis Magna (modern Berber, southeast of Carthage, modern Tunisia). Severus came from a wealthy, distinguished family of equestrian rank. Severus was of Italian Roman ancestry on his mother's side and of Punic or Libyan-Punic ancestry on his father's. Little is known of his father, Publius Septimius Geta, who held no major political status but had two cousins who served as consuls under emperor Antoninus Pius. His mother, Fulvia Pia's family moved from Italy to North Africa and was of the Fulvius gens, an ancient and politically influential clan, which was originally of plebeian status. His siblings were a younger Publius Septimius Geta and Septimia Octavilla. Severus’s maternal cousin was Praetorian Guard and consul Gaius Fulvius Plautianus.

 

In 172, Severus was made a Senator by the then emperor Marcus Aurelius. In 187 he married secondly Julia Domna. In 190 Severus became consul, and in the following year received from the emperor Commodus (successor to Marcus Aurelius) the command of the legions in Pannonia.

 

On the murder of Pertinax by the troops in 193, they proclaimed Severus Emperor at Carnuntum, whereupon he hurried to Italy. The former emperor, Didius Julianus, was condemned to death by the Senate and killed, and Severus took possession of Rome without opposition.

 

The legions of Syria, however, had proclaimed Pescennius Niger emperor. At the same time, Severus felt it was reasonable to offer Clodius Albinus, the powerful governor of Britannia who had probably supported Didius against him, the rank of Caesar, which implied some claim to succession. With his rearguard safe, he moved to the East and crushed Niger's forces at the Battle of Issus. The following year was devoted to suppressing Mesopotamia and other Parthian vassals who had backed Niger. When afterwards Severus declared openly his son Caracalla as successor, Albinus was hailed emperor by his troops and moved to Gallia. Severus, after a short stay in Rome, moved northwards to meet him. On February 19, 197, in the Battle of Lugdunum, with an army of 100,000 men, mostly composed of Illyrian, Moesian and Dacian legions, Severus defeated and killed Clodius Albinus, securing his full control over the Empire.

 

Emperor

 

Severus was at heart a soldier, and sought glory through military exploits. In 197 he waged a brief and successful war against the Parthian Empire in retaliation for the support given to Pescennius Niger. The Parthian capital Ctesiphon was sacked by the legions, and the northern half of Mesopotamia was restored to Rome.

 

His relations with the Roman Senate were never good. He was unpopular with them from the outset, having seized power with the help of the military, and he returned the sentiment. Severus ordered the execution of dozens of Senators on charges of corruption and conspiracy against him, replacing them with his own favorites.

 

He also disbanded the Praetorian Guard and replaced it with one of his own, made up of 50,000 loyal soldiers mainly camped at Albanum, near Rome (also probably to grant the emperor a kind of centralized reserve). During his reign the number of legions was also increased from 25/30 to 33. He also increased the number of auxiliary corps (numerii), many of these troops coming from the Eastern borders. Additionally the annual wage for a soldier was raised from 300 to 500 denarii.

 

Although his actions turned Rome into a military dictatorship, he was popular with the citizens of Rome, having stamped out the rampant corruption of Commodus's reign. When he returned from his victory over the Parthians, he erected the Arch of Septimius Severus in Rome.

 

According to Cassius Dio, however, after 197 Severus fell heavily under the influence of his Praetorian Prefect, Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, who came to have almost total control of most branches of the imperial administration. Plautianus's daughter, Fulvia Plautilla, was married to Severus's son, Caracalla. Plautianus’s excessive power came to an end in 205, when he was denounced by the Emperor's dying brother and killed. The two following praefecti, including the jurist Aemilius Papinianus, received however even larger powers.

 

Campaigns in Caledonia (Scotland)

 

Starting from 208 Severus undertook a number of military actions in Roman Britain, reconstructing Hadrian's Wall and campaigning in Scotland.

 

He reached the area of the Moray Firth in his last campaign in Caledonia, as was called Scotland by the Romans.. In 210 obtained a peace with the Picts that lasted practically until the final withdrawal of the Roman legions from Britain, before falling severely ill in Eboracum (York).

 

Death

 

He is famously said to have given the advice to his sons: "Be harmonious, enrich the soldiers, and scorn all other men" before he died at Eboracum on February 4, 211. Upon his death in 211, Severus was deified by the Senate and succeeded by his sons, Caracalla and Geta, who were advised by his wife Julia Domna. The stability Severus provided the Empire was soon gone under their reign.

 

Accomplishments and Record

 

Though his military expenditure was costly to the empire, Severus was the strong, able ruler that Rome needed at the time. He began a tradition of effective emperors elevated solely by the military. His policy of an expanded and better-rewarded army was criticized by his contemporary Dio Cassius and Herodianus: in particular, they pointed out the increasing burden (in the form of taxes and services) the civilian population had to bear to maintain the new army.

 

Severus was also distinguished for his buildings. Apart from the triumphal arch in the Roman Forum carrying his full name, he also built the Septizodium in Rome and enriched greatly his native city of Leptis Magna (including another triumphal arch on the occasion of his visit of 203).

 

Severus and Christianity

 

Christians were persecuted during the reign of Septimus Severus. Severus allowed the enforcement of policies already long-established, which meant that Roman authorities did not intentionally seek out Christians, but when people were accused of being Christians they could either curse Jesus and make an offering to Roman gods, or be executed. Furthermore, wishing to strengthen the peace by encouraging religious harmony through syncretism, Severus tried to limit the spread of the two quarrelsome groups who refused to yield to syncretism by outlawing conversion to Christianity or Judaism. Individual officials availed themselves of the laws to proceed with rigor against the Christians. Naturally the emperor, with his strict conception of law, did not hinder such partial persecution, which took place in Egypt and the Thebaid, as well as in Africa proconsularis and the East. Christian martyrs were numerous in Alexandria (cf. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, ii. 20; Eusebius, Church History, V., xxvi., VI., i.). No less severe were the persecutions in Africa, which seem to have begun in 197 or 198 (cf. Tertullian's Ad martyres), and included the Christians known in the Roman martyrology as the martyrs of Madaura. Probably in 202 or 203 Felicitas and Perpetua suffered for their faith. Persecution again raged for a short time under the proconsul Scapula in 211, especially in Numidia and Mauritania. Later accounts of a Gallic persecution, especially at Lyon, are legendary. In general it may thus be said that the position of the Christians under Septimius Severus was the same as under the Antonines; but the law of this Emperor at least shows clearly that the rescript of Trajan had failed to execute its purpose.

 

The Principate

 

Julio-Claudian dynasty

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

16 January 27 BC to 19 August AD 14

Augustus

 

19 August 14 to 16 March 37

Tiberius

 

18 March 37 to 24 January 41

Caligula

Murdered by Praetorian Guard

24 January 41 to 13 October 54

Claudius

Poisoned by his wife Agrippina, mother of Nero

13 October 54 to 11 June 68

Nero

Made a slave kill him

Year of the Four Emperors (Civil War)

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

8 June 68 to 15 January 69

Galba

Murdered in favour of Otho

15 January 69 to 16 April 69

Otho

Committed suicide

2 January 69 to 20 December 69

Vitellius

Murdered in favour of Vespasian

Flavian dynasty

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

1 July 69 to 24 June 79

Vespasian

 

24 June 79 to 13 September 81

Titus

Possibly assassinated by Domitian

14 September 81 to 18 September 96

Domitian

Assassinated

Nervan-Antonian dynasty

 

Main article: Five Good Emperors

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

18 September 96 to 27 January 98

Nerva

Proclaimed emperor by senate

28 January 98 to 7 August 117

Trajan

 

11 August 117 to 10 July 138

Hadrian

 

10 July 138 to 7 March 161

Antoninus Pius

 

7 March 161 to 17 March 180

Marcus Aurelius

 

7 March 161 to March 169

Lucius Verus

Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius

175

Avidius Cassius

Usurper; ruled in Egypt and Syria; murdered by his own army

177 to 31 December 192

Commodus

Assassinated

Year of the Five Emperors & Severan dynasty

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

1 January 193 to 28 March 193

Pertinax

Proclaimed emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard

28 March 193 to 1 June 193

Didius Julianus

Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard; executed on orders of the Senate

9 April 193 to 4 February 211

Septimius Severus

Proclaimed emperor by Pannonian troops; accepted by senate

193 to 194/195

Pescennius Niger

Proclaimed emperor by Syrian troops, defeated in battle by Septimius Severus

193/195 to 197

Clodius Albinus

Proclaimed emperor by British troops, defeated in battle by Septimius Severus

198 to 8 April 217

Caracalla

Assassinated at the behest of Macrinus

209 to 4 February 211

Geta

Co-emperor with Caracalla; assassinated on orders of Caracalla

11 April 217 to June 218

Macrinus

Proclaimed himself emperor; executed on orders of Elagabalus

May 217 to June 218

Diadumenian

Junior co-emperor under Macrinus; executed

June 218 to 222

Elagabalus

Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by his own troops

13 March 222 to ?March 235

Alexander Severus

Murdered by his own troops

Rulers during the Crisis of the Third Century

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

February/March 235 to March/April 238

Maximinus Thrax

Proclaimed emperor by the army; murdered by Praetorian Guard

earlyJanuary/March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238

Gordian I

Proclaimed emperor in Africa; committed suicide after Gordian II's death

earlyJanuary March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238

Gordian II

Proclaimed emperor with Gordian I, killed in battle

earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238

Pupienus

Proclaimed joint emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard

earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238

Balbinus

Proclaimed joint emperor by senate; murdered by Praetorian Guard

May 238 to February 244

Gordian III

Nephew of Gordian II; death unclear, probably murdered

240

Sabinianus

Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated in battle

February 244 to September/October 249

Philip the Arab

Proclaimed emperor after death of Gordian III; killed in battle by Decius

248

Pacatianus

Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; murdered by his own soldiers

248 to 249

Iotapianus

Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor in the east; murdered by his own soldiers

248? or 253?

Silbannacus

Usurper; details essentially unknown

249 to June 251

Decius

Killed in battle

249 to 252

Priscus

Proclaimed himself emperor in the east in opposition to Decius

250 to 250

Licinianus

Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Rome; rebellion suppressed

early251 to June 251

Herennius Etruscus

Junior co-emperor under Decius; killed in battle

251

Hostilian

Son of Decius; died of plague

June 251 to August 253

Gallus

Proclaimed emperor by his troops after Decius's death; murdered by them in favour of Aemilianus

July 251 to August 253

Volusianus

Junior co-emperor under Gallus; murdered by army

August 253 to October 253

Aemilian

Proclaimed emperor by his troops; murdered by them in favour of Valerian

253 to June 260

Valerian

Proclaimed emperor by his troops; captured in battle by the Persians; died in captivity

253 to September 268

Gallienus

Junior co-emperor under Valerian to 260; probably murdered by his generals

260

Saloninus

Son of Gallienus; proclaimed emperor by army; murdered shortly after by troops of Postumus

June 260 (or 258)

Ingenuus

Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after Valerian's capture; defeated in battle

260

Regalianus

Usurper; proclaimed emperor after Ingenuus's defeat; fate unclear

260 to 261

Macrianus Major

Usurper; proclaimed emperor by eastern army; defeated and killed in battle

260 to 261

Macrianus Minor

Usurper; son of Macrianus Major; defeated and killed in battle

260 to 261

Quietus

Usurper; son of Macrianus Major; defeated and killed in battle

261 to 261 or 262

Mussius Aemilianus

Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after the defeat of the Macriani; defeated and executed

268 to 268

Aureolus

Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor after Gallienus's death; surrendered to Claudius II Gothicus; murdered by Praetorian Guard

268 to August 270

Claudius II Gothicus

Proclaimed emperor by the army

August 270 to September 270

Quintillus

Proclaimed himself emperor; cause of death unclear

August 270 to 275

Aurelian

Proclaimed emperor by army; murdered by the Praetorian Guard

271 to 271

Septimius

Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Dalmatia; killed by his own soldiers

November/December 275 to July 276

Tacitus

Appointed emperor by the Senate; possibly assassinated

July 276 to September 276

Florianus

Brother of Tacitus, proclaimed emperor by the western army; murdered by his troops

July 276 to lateSeptember 282

Probus

Proclaimed emperor by the eastern army; murdered by his own soldiers in favour of Carus

280

Julius Saturninus

Usurper; proclaimed emperor by his troops; then killed by them

280

Proculus

Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor at the request of the people of Lugdunum; executed by Probus

280

Bonosus

Usurper; proclaimed himself emperor; defeated by Probus and committed suicide

September 282 to July/August 283

Carus

Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian guard

spring 283 to summer 285

Carinus

Son of Carus; co-emperor with Numerian; fate unclear

July/August 283 to November 284

Numerian

Son of Carus; co-emperor with Carinus; probably murdered

Gallic Empire 260 to 274

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

260 to 268

Postumus

Declared himself emperor after Valerian's death; killed by his own troops

268 to 268

Laelianus

Proclaimed himself emperor in opposition to Postumus; defeated and killed by Postumus

269 to 269

Marius

Proclaimed himself emperor after Postumus's death

269 to 271

Victorinus

Proclaimed emperor after Marius's death

270 to 271

Domitianus

Proclaimed himself emperor of the Gallic Empire

271 to 274

Tetricus I

Nominated heir to Victorinus

Britannic Empire 286 to 297

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

286 to 293

Carausius

Declared himself emperor; assassinated by Allectus

293 to 297

Allectus

Declared himself emperor after Carausius's death; defeated by Constantius Chlorus

Dominate

 

Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

20 November 284 to 1 May 305

Diocletian

Declared emperor by the army after Numerian's death; Abdicated

1 April 286 to 1 May 305

Maximian

Made co-emperor ('Augustus') with Diocletian; abdicated

1 May 305 to 25 July 306

Constantius I Chlorus

Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Maximian; became Augustus after his abdication

1 May 305 to May 311

Galerius

Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Diocletian; became Augustus after his abdication

August 306 to 16 September 307

Severus II

Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Constantius Chlorus; became Augustus after his death; executed by Maxentius

28 October 306 to 28 October 312

Maxentius

Son of Maximian; proclaimed Augustus by Praetorian Guard; defeated in battle by Constantine I

de jure: 307, de facto 312 to 22 May 337

Constantine I

Son of Constantius Chlorus; proclaimed Augustus by army

308-309?/311?

Domitius Alexander

Proclaimed emperor in Africa; defeated in battle by Maxentius

11 November 308 to 18 September 324

Licinius

Appointed Augustus by Galerius; deposed by Constantine I and executed

1 May 311 to July/August 313

Maximinus Daia

Made junior co-emperor ('Caesar') under Galerius; became Augustus after his death; defeated in battle by Licinius and committed suicide

December 316 to 1 March 317

Valerius Valens

Appointed co-Augustus by Licinius; executed by Licinius

July to 18 September 324

Martinianus

Appointed co-Augustus by Licinius; deposed by Constantine I and executed

337 to 340

Constantine II

Son of Constantine I; co-emperor with his brothers; killed in battle

337 to 361

Constantius II

Son of Constantine I; co-emperor with his brothers

337 to 350

Constans I

Son of Constantine I; co-emperor with his brothers, killed by Magnentius

January 350 to 11 August 353

Magnentius

Usurper; proclaimed emperor by the army; defeated by Constantius II and committed suicide

c. 350

Vetranio

Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius; recognized by Constantius II but then deposed

c. 350

Nepotianus

Proclaimed himself emperor against Magnentius, defeated and executed by Magnentius

November 361 to June 363

Julian

Cousin of Constantius II; made Caesar by Constantius, then proclaimed Augustus by the army; killed in battle

363 to 17 February 364

Jovian

Proclaimed emperor by the army after Julian's death

Valentinian dynasty

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

26 February 364 to 17 November 375

Valentinian I

Valentinian I Coins.htm

Proclaimed emperor by the army after Jovian's death

28 March 365 to 9 August 378

Valens

Made co-emperor in the east by his brother Valentinian I; killed in battle

September 365 to 27 May 366

Procopius

Usurper; Proclaimed himself emperor; defeated and executed by Valens

24 August 367 to 383

Gratian

Gratian Coins.htm

Son of Valentinian I; assassinated

375 to 392

Valentinian II

Valentinian II Coins.htm

Son of Valentinian I; deposed by Arbogast and died in suspicious circumstances

383 to 388

Magnus Maximus

Magnus Maximus Coins.htm

Usurper; proclaimed emperor by troops; at one time recognized by Theodosius I, but then deposed and executed

c.386 to 388

Flavius Victor

Flavius Victor Coins.htm

Son of Magnus Maximus, executed on orders of Theodosius I

392 to 394

Eugenius

Eugenius Coins.htm

Usurper; proclaimed emperor by army under Arbogast; defeated in battle by Theodosius I

Theodosian dynasty

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

379 to 17 January 395

Theodosius I

Theodosius I Coins.htm

Made co-emperor for the east by Gratian

383 to 408

EAST

Arcadius

Arcadius Coins.htm

Appointed co-emperor with his father Theodosius I; sole emperor for the east from January 395

23 January 393 to 15 August 423

WEST

Honorius

Honorius Coins.htm

Appointed Augustus for the west by his father Theodosius I

407 to 411

WEST

Constantine III

Constantine III Coins.htm

Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Britain; defeated by Constantius III

409 to 411

WEST

Constans II

Constans II Coins.htm

Usurper; made emperor by his father Constantine III; killed in battle

409 and 414 to 415

WEST

Priscus Attalus

Priscus Attalus Coins.htm

Usurper; twice proclaimed emperor by Visigoths under Alaric and twice deposed by Honorius

409 to 411

WEST

Maximus

Maximus Coins.htm

Usurper; proclaimed emperor in Spain; abdicated

411 to 413

WEST

Jovinus

Jovinus Coins.htm

Usurper; proclaimed emperor after Constantine III's death, executed by Honorius

412 to 413

WEST

Sebastianus

Sebastianus Coins.htm

Usurper; appointed co-emperor by Jovinus, executed by Honorius

408 to 450

EAST

Theodosius II

Theodosius II Coins.htm

Son of Arcadius

421 to 421

WEST

Constantius III

Constantius III Coins.htm

Son-in-law of Theodosius I; appointed co-emperor by Honorius

423 to 425

WEST

Joannes

Johannes Coins.htm

Proclaimed western emperor, initially undisputed; defeated and executed by Theodosius II in favour of Valentinian III

425 to 16 March 455

WEST

Valentinian III

Valentinian III Coins.htm

Son of Constantius III; appointed emperor by Theodosius II; assassinated

Western Roman Empire

 

Reign

Incumbent

Notes

17 March 455 to 31 May 455

Petronius Maximus

Petronius Maximus Coins.htm

Proclaimed himself emperor after Valentinian III's death; murdered

June 455 to 17 October 456

Avitus

Avitus Coins.htm

Proclaimed emperor by the Visigoth king Theoderic II; deposed by Ricimer

457 to 2 August 461

Majorian

Majorian Coins.htm

Appointed by Ricimer; deposed and executed by Ricimer

461 to 465

Libius Severus

Libius Severus Coins.htm

Appointed by Ricimer; deposed and executed by Ricimer

12 April 467 to 11 July 472

Anthemius

Anthemius Coins.htm

Appointed by Ricimer; deposed and executed by Ricimer

July 472 to 2 November 472

Olybrius

Olybrius Coins.htm

Appointed by Ricimer

5 March 473 to June 474

Glycerius

Glycerius Coins.htm

Appointed by Gundobad; deposed by Julius Nepos

June 474 to 25 April 480

Julius Nepos

Julius Nepos Coins.htm

Appointed by eastern emperor Leo I; deposed in Italy by Orestes in 475; continued to be recognised as lawful emperor in Gaul and Dalmatia until his murder in 480

31 October 475 to 4 September 476

Romulus Augustus

(Romulus Augustulus)

Romulus Augustus Coins.htm

Son of Orestes; deposed by Odoacer; fate unknown

Further information: Barbarian kings of Italy

Eastern Roman Empire

 

For the rulers of the Eastern Roman Empire (also known as the Byzantine Empire) after Theodosius II, see: List of Byzantine Emperors

Theodosian dynasty (395–457)

 

See also: Theodosian dynasty

Name Reign Comments

  Theodosius I "the Great"

(Θεοδόσιος Α' ο Μέγας, Flavius Theodosius)Theodosius I Coins.htm 19 January 379 –

17 January 395 Born on 11 January 347. Aristocrat and military leader, brother-in-law of Gratian, who appointed him as emperor of the East. From 392 until his death sole Roman emperor

  Arcadius

(Αρκάδιος, Flavius Arcadius)Arcadius Coins.htm 17 January 395 –

1 May 408 Born in 377/378, the eldest son of Theodosius I. Succeeded upon the death of his father

  Theodosius II

(Θεοδόσιος Β', Flavius Theodosius) Theodosius II Coins.htm 1 May 408 –

28 July 450 Born on 10 April 401, the only son of Arcadius. Succeeded upon the death of his father. As a minor, the praetorian prefect Anthemius was regent in 408–414. He died in a riding accident

Marcian.jpg Marcian

(Μαρκιανός, Flavius Valerius Marcianus)

Marcian Coins.htm

 

450 – January 457 Born in 396. A soldier and politician, he became emperor after being wed by the Augusta Pulcheria, Theodosius II's sister, following the latter's death. Died of gangrene

Leonid dynasty (457–518)

 

See also: House of Leo

Name Reign Comments

  Leo I "the Thracian"

(Λέων Α' ο Θράξ, Flavius Valerius Leo)

Leo I Coins.htm

 

7 February 457 –

18 January 474 Born in Dacia in 401. A common soldier, he was chosen by Aspar, commander-in-chief of the army. Died of dysentery

Leo (474)-coin.jpg Leo II

(Λέων Β', Flavius Leo)

Leo II Coins.htm

 

18 January –

17 November 474 Born in 467, the grandson of Leo I. Succeeded upon the death of Leo I. Died of an unknown disease, possibly poisoned

Zeno.png Zeno

(Ζήνων, Flavius Zeno)

Zeno Coins.htm

 

17 November 474 –

9 April 491 Born c.425 at Zenonopolis, Isauria, originally named Tarasicodissa. Son-in-law of Leo I, he was bypassed in the succession because of his barbarian origin. Named co-emperor by his son on 9 February 474, he succeeded upon the death of Leo II. Deposed by Basiliscus, brother-in-law of Leo, he fled to his native country and regained the throne in August 476.

Basiliscus.jpg Basiliscus

(Βασιλίσκος, Flavius Basiliscus)

Basiliscus Coins.htm

 

9 January 475 –

August 476 General and brother-in-law of Leo I, he seized power from Zeno but was again deposed by him. Died in 476/477

Anastasius I (emperor).jpg Anastasius I

(Αναστάσιος Α', Flavius Anastasius)

BYZANTINE - Anastasius Coins.htm

 

11 April 491 –

9 July 518 Born c. 430 at Dyrrhachium, Epirus nova. A palace official (silentiarius) and son-in-law of Leo I, he was chosen as emperor by empress-dowager Ariadne

Justinian Dynasty

 

Main article: Justinian Dynasty

Portrait Name Born Reigned Succession Died

Tremissis-Justin I-sb0058.jpg Justin I

FLAVIVS IVSTINVS AVGVSTVS c. 450 AD, Naissus July 9, 518 AD – August 1, 527 AD Commander of the palace guard under Anastasius I); elected as emperor with support of army August 1, 527 AD

Natural causes

Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna 004.jpg Justinian I

FLAVIVS PETRVS SABBATIVS IVSTINIANVS AVGVSTVS c. 482 AD, Tauresium, Dardania August 1, 527 AD – 13/14 November 565 AD Nephew and nominated heir of Justin I 13/14 November 565 AD

Natural causes

Solidus-Justin II-sb0391.jpg Justin II

FLAVIVS IVSTINIVS IVNIOR AVGVSTVS c. 520 AD, ? 13/14 November 565 AD – 578 AD Nephew of Justinian I 578 AD

Became insane; Tiberius II Constantine ruled as regent from December 574 and became emperor on Justin's death in 578

Roman Late Monogram Coins.htm

 

Roman AE4 Coins.htm

 

See also

 

Roman Republic

Roman Empire

Western Roman Empire

Byzantine Empire

Britannic Empire

Gallic Empire

List of Roman usurpers

Roman usurper

Thirty Tyrants (Roman)